Solar based Power System Components

Sep 9, 2017   //   by admin   //   Knowledge Base  //  No Comments

A solar power system is a photo voltaic system which converts solar energy into electricity. It is inter connected system with each having specific function. Solar energy basically refers to the application of energy from sun at practical ends. The main advantage of a solar power system is its modularity. Nowadays, solar energy is one of the most fast growing technologies among all renewable resources. It is having much application at residential level both off grid and grid- tie areas.

Given below are the components of solar power system:-

  • Solar panels
  • Solar inverters
  • Batteries
  • Utility meter
  • Charge controllers
  • Monitoring device

Solar panels –

It is a combination of solar cells mostly silicon cells. It converts energy from the sunlight into DC current which then transmits into inverters for electricity generation. These can installed on roof, ground or poles based on the necessity with the help of racks or frames.

Solar Inverters –

These converts DC current from Solar panels in to AC current which can be fed in to grid. It is required to supply power to all DC appliances. There are two types of solar inverters: – Stand Alone inverters and Grid tie inverters. Stand-alone inverters are connected to batteries and have power back up system. They can supply power even when the utility fails. While Grid – tie inverters are those which don’t have any power back up facilities and are generally used in places with constant power supply.

Batteries –

Batteries are connected to solar inverters and are used to store power for power back – up. This enables the system to provide power even in nights and bad weather when sunlight is not available.

Utility meter –

The utility meters are used to monitor the electricity usage and are part of power system. When the solar power system is connected to the grid it can be used for dual purposes as it will also track the amount of electricity generated in excess of the original usage. And the amount of energy that reamin unused you don’t use is credited as it passes through the utility meter and into the utility grid.

Charge controllers –

Charge controllers are used to supply DC power to all the appliances. The main function of a charge controller is to maintain batteries at proper charge level .It supplies a regulated DC to all appliances, store power in battery as well as monitoring devices. These are used for Maximum power point tracking (MPPT purposes). MPPT is a technique by which solar inverters tries to get maximum possible output.

Monitoring device-

Monitoring devices are used to monitor the power generation form a solar power system and ensure the power system is performing optimally.

All the above mentioned component are connected together to form a solar power system. These systems can be classified into two types on the basis of their power supply and grid connection:-

1) Stand Alone Systems:- These power system provide power backup facilities even when there is no sunlight for e.g. in nights or during bad weather when sunlight are not available. They need not always required to be connected to the grid. These have much application in rural areas and remote locations where there is no power supply.

These are two types: Direct Coupled systems & Stand- alone systems with batteries. The former don’t use any battery in the system. These types of systems are directly connected to DC appliances. Since they don’t have battery they don’t provide power backup in nights. The later one has power back up system

These have many load related problems like they become unresponsive when there is low quality wiring ,standby mode of loads, harmonic distortion, difference between load and inverter size.


2) Grid connected systems: –

These are systems which provide energy by solar panels which are connected to utility grid. They don’t have batteries unlike the stand alone systems. It consists of PV panels, MPPT, inverters, grid connection equipment. It is comparatively easier to install as they do not require batteries. When utility fails they will continue to supply power until there is sunlight. In that case the system behaves island which is surrounded with no power supply. It can be dangerous sometimes so the anti- islanding protection is necessary in these types of system. In some of inverters there is inbuilt anti-islanding circuit.


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