Rural Electrification In India

Sep 9, 2017   //   by admin   //   Knowledge Base  //  No Comments

The following potential landscapes to be use for hydro kinetic turbines:


Underwater and above-water noise sources consist of boat, ship and barge activity linked with transporting workers, materials, and hydrokinetic energy devices to the offshore site, installing hydrokinetic facilities, and the laying of electrical and signal cables. Human receptors on the ocean shore possible would be far enough away for any impact to be minor. Human receptors on the river shore could be close to the activities necessary for locating and anchoring river in-stream turbines.

If pile driving is necessary for anchoring hydrokinetic energy devices or for construction of offshore power-gathering stations, the noise could be easy to hear at the shoreline and might be annoying to populations. This impact would be irregular. Techniques for laying cable could require use of air guns, rock cutters, or shaped explosive charges. The noise could be strong but would occur over a very short time period.

Onshore noise would effect from pre-assembly of the hydrokinetic energy devices and the construction of onshore facilities. The primary source of noise during construction of onshore facilities, transmission lines, and a barrage facility would be from equipment operation (e.g., rollers, bulldozers, diesel engines). Other sources of noise include vehicular traffic, tree felling, and blasting.

Whether the noise levels from these activities go beyond U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines or local ordinance would depend on the distance to the nearest residence and the effectiveness of any justifying measures to reduce noise levels. If near a residential area, noise levels from blasting and some equipment operation could go beyond the EPA guideline but would be irregular and extend for only a limited time.

Adverse impacts due to noise could occur if the site is located near a responsive area, such as a park, wilderness, or other protected area. The primary impacts from noise would be localized disturbances to wildlife, recreationists, and residents.


For offshore projects, trenching, dredging , and placement of hydrokinetic energy devices and linked components could impact shipwrecks or buried archaeological artefacts. For onshore projects, impacts to cultural resources could happen from site preparation (e.g., clearing, excavation, and grading) and construction of transmission-related facilities. For either offshore or onshore projects, visual impacts could also result from disturbance of a historical setting that is important to the integrity of a historic structure, such as a lighthouse.



River In-stream

The potential effects of the placement of river in-stream energy devices and linked construction on fish may include behavioural responses such as prevention and deflections in travel direction. Noise and vibrations generate during the various construction activities, especially placement of supporting structures and installation of submarine transmission lines, could disturb the normal behaviour. Those displaced because of avoidance behaviours during construction are likely to come again within relatively short periods following termination of construction activities.

The movement and declaration of sediment during construction activities on the riverbed could kill benthic organisms, a source of food for fish. Effects to fish could potentially happen if spawning or nursery grounds are disturbed during construction or if re-suspended sediments cause smothering of habitat. The area of riverbed disturbance would be very small relative to the accessibility of similar habitat in surrounding areas.

Terrestrial wildlife would be most affect by habitat reduction within the project site, access roads, and transmission line rights-of-way. Wildlife within surrounding habitats might also be affected if the construction activity (and associated noise) disturbs ordinary behaviours, such as feeding and reproduction. Impacts to wildlife are expected to be small.

Barrage Facilities

Dam construction at a barrage facility would not enlarge the amount of wetted area covered within the embayment , but it would change the period of time that water is held in the embayment and could change the aquatic environment of the embayment. These alterations could lead to environment loss for terrestrial wildlife and bird species and/or degradation for aquatic species.

Underwater habitat would be altered and marine species could be injured or killed during construction of the intake and dam. The ability of fish and marine mammals to enter and leave the embayment would be substantially altered. The significance of construction impacts to fish, marine mammals, and saltwater wetland dependent birds and terrestrial species is likely to be site-specific.

Terrestrial wildlife also would be affected by habitat decrease caused by construction of land-based facilities within the project site, including access roads and transmission line right of way.




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