Wind Farms for Energy Generation

Sep 9, 2017   //   by admin   //   Knowledge Base  //  No Comments

Wind energy is now towards becoming the main stream energy. The deployment of wind energy has been increased in recent years.

Wind farm is a group of wind turbines which harnesses wind power to generate mechanical power or electricity. Since ancient times wind power is used for many purposes like irrigation, grinding cereals, spices etc. Wind turbines work by transforming the Wind Energy into mechanical power that can be used for conversion to electricity or for other mechanical purposes.

Wind being a perennial source of energy can be used for powering home and businesses. The capacity of a wind turbine to produce power depends upon the amount of energy which the wind transfers to the rotor depends on the density of the air, the rotor area, and the wind speed.

Wind turbines can either be installed on shore or off shore. On-shore installations are installations in territorial or land region where as Off Shore installations are setup in water bodies to generate electricity from wind. Wind speed and currents near water bodies have more kinetic energy as compared to land so these are more efficient then “on- shore installations”.

On-shore Wind farms are constructed on land. Alta Wind Energy Center in California is the largest onshore wind farms outside of China, with a capacity of 1020 MW of power. These have some advantages over Off Shore installations. These have cheaper foundations, low cost integration with the electrical-grid network, cheaper installation and access during initial construction phase and easier access for operation and maintenance. But these are subject to certain restrictions like heavy noise, land disputes and visual environmental impacts.

Off Shore wind farms are constructed in water bodies to generate electricity from wind like in lakes, fjords and sheltered coastal areas utilising traditional wind technologies as well as deep sea using floating wind turbines. Walney Wind Farm in United Kingdom is the largest Off Shore wind farm with 367 MW capacity of power Thanet Offshore Wind Project with 300 MW that too in UK. Offshore wind power can help to reduce energy imports, reduce air pollution and greenhouse gases (by displacing fossil-fuel power generation), meet renewable electricity standards, and create jobs and local business opportunities. However, off shore wind farms are more expensive then On-shore installations.

The Capacity factor of a wind turbine (i.e. the ratio of actual productivity in a year to this theoretical maximum) depends upon three factors:-

  • of blades
  • Size of Generators
  • Speed of wind

The efficiency of a wind turbine largely depends upon the no. of blades in the turbine. Rotors with an odd number of rotor blades (atleast 3 blades) can be are considered to be stable and are similar to a disc. While a rotor with an even number of blades will give stability problems for a machine with a stiff structure. The reason is that at the very moment when the uppermost blade bends backwards, because it gets the maximum power from the wind, the lowermost blade passes into the wind shade in front of the tower.

Generators play an important role in power generation. Usually Inductions Generators are used for wind mills due to their ability to produce useful power at varying rotor speeds. They are attached at one end to the turbine, while the other end is connected to the power grid. Different types of generators behave differently during grid transmissions. Small generators are less efficient and require less force to turn than larger ones and are cheaper, but gives lower power output. Large Generators are very efficient at high wind speeds, but unable to turn at low wind speeds and are expensive.

The speed of wind is not predictable and is variable. Hence, the output and the electricity generated can also be variable seasonally. The weather forecasting methods are used but still the productivity of wind turbines in short term can vary more or less than 10%.

Advantages of power generation from wind farms :-

  • It is eco-friendly source of energy as there is no emission of toxic gases.
  • Though speed of wind is variable but still it is a dependable source of energy as it won’t expire ever.
  • Wind farms usually don’t require much land space as compared to other power stations. And also the space between wind turbines can be used for farming purposes and cattle grazing.
  • If harnessed properly their efficiency can be increased up to 10% more than present efficiency.
  • It can be accessed by off – grid remote areas where it is expensive and difficult to run electrical lines.

 

Disadvantages of Wind Farms:-

  • Even though cost of production of electricity decreased during past few years still it requires high initial investment.
  • Noise creation by wind turbines.
  • Birds and bats often collide with rotors and blades.
  • The major challenge of using wind power is its variability and intermittency. It can’t be predicted.

Summing up all the advantages and disadvantages of using wind power. We can say that Wind power have a bright scope of its future as renewable energy and its disadvantages can be eradicated by technological advancements.

 

Wind Power Systems For Houses

Sep 9, 2017   //   by admin   //   Knowledge Base  //  No Comments

This paper attempts to discuss what wind power is and how it is used for mankind. Wind energy that can be utilised at the microlevel by man for various purposes.
Let us understand what wind energy is first.

Wind Energy: Wind is a free, clean and inexhaustible source of energy. This wind is a by- product of the sun’s energy. The surface of earth heats and cools unevenly, creating atmospheric pressure zones that makes air flow from high to low pressure areas. Hence about 2% of sun’s energy reaching earth gets converted into wind energy.

Wind energy has been used for several years for propelling ships, to grind grain, pump water, irrigation, navigation etc.
Wind energy is generated by the kinetic energy of atmospheric air. Wind power systems uses this kinetic energy of wind into useful sources of power. The tool for the wind power to be utilized is through Turbine.

Wind turbine is a device which has alternator attached to a propeller which has blades that receives the kinetic flow of wind and moves. Hence when the wind blows, the propeller turns and the alternator begins to produce power in the form of electricity. Attached is the diagram of wind turbine working mechanisms.

 

Types of Turbines:

With different turbines having different blades or propellers, low speed generators either have long rotor blades or larger number of short, wide blades which helps to drive more power from low wind speeds. While high speed generators are built with narrow and relatively short blades in order to minimize potential rotor damage in areas which is exposed with high to extreme high wind speeds.

The process of conversion of wind energy requires technological advancement which is rapidly growing. There are three types of typical generator system. Understanding the concept of turbine with respect to its rotational speed and wind flow, there are 3 designs in particular that can be classified into fixed speed, limited variable speed and variable speed.

Secondly there is another aspect of categories the turbine is based on the rating of the power system related to the generator’s capacity. There are two such categories are partial scale and full scale power electronic converter. Another criteria is based on the

drive train components- wind energy concept can be classified into geared drive which is a specific multistage gear with high speed generator that forms that part of turbine system while the other is a direct drive wind turbine which has a single stage gear and a low-speed generator.

Keeping the above categories there are 3 basic wind power systems that have been prepared for the practice of energy generation.

  1. Fixed Speed wind turbine: this uses multi-stage gearbox and standard induction generator directly connected to grid.
  2. Variable Speed wind turbine: uses multi-stage gearbox with doubly fed induction where power electronic converter feeding the rotor winding capacity.
  3. Variable Speed turbine: this is variable but this is gearless turbine system with direct drive generator and full scale power electronic converter.

How to Use Wind Power systems in Home setting:

Basic need for implanting wind power system is to ensure availability of a place where wind blow is at its fullest. The turbines are placed either on the rooftops on the house or to be mounted in an area which is free from the obstructions to the wind. Though it is highly recommended to have the Wind turbines away from rooftop for precisely two reasons. One, the turbines vibrate which transfers to the frame of the building, secondly higher the wind turbine in the air the more effective it is.

The wind generators do not produce direct current, it needs a rectifier that converts the energy into Direct Current or DC.
Though some turbines have the rectifier built in and other cases rectifier is supplied as a separate component.

Electricity Generation: if the wind is blowing, they will produce current even if the battery needs any charging or not. Hence wind generators are “Active” electricity producers. Therefore in order to prevent damage, electricity must be used in some way .

If battery is not charged, the electricity will be generated by the wind power system. But if it is fully charged, then the turbine’s output must be diverted. These are some control mechanisms that allow the electricity to be used while preventing any damage to system. Once when this load diverter is attached to the wind turbine and storage battery, electrical system can be connected to the batteries either directly for matching a voltage DC system or through an inverter for an Alternator Current or AC and/or mixed AC/DC current system.

Various large scale renewable energy supply to electricity grid in India

Sep 9, 2017   //   by admin   //   Knowledge Base  //  No Comments

Renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, and hydro can reduce the negative impact of climate change also it increases the energy accessibility to far off areas . Subsequent to this , it will also create great employment apportunities . Currently, renewable energy provides 19% of the global energy consumption. With appropriate policies and governmental initiatives it could help in meeting three fourths of the global energy requirements by 2050 as per UN estimates.

 

Mini & Micro grids

 

Mini and Micro grids can amplify   to cover   over 1.4 billion population those who have no accessibility   to power  . Currently a main segment of India’s  power   requirement are collected from fossil fuels. However there is an enormous potential for renewable energy specified its big landmass that receive a vital quantity of solar radiation. The Jawaharlal National Solar Mission was launched in 2009. Aiming to create solar energy an imperative part of India’s power future.

 

Solar power technology ( CSP )

 

Among the rising demand for sustainable energy focused solar power (CSP) technologies are on the edge of big scale worldwide consumption. Such technologies connect concerted sunlight to produce electricity. In the upcoming era , the CSP market is predictable to be significant in excess of a billion dollars. The Government of India too has recognized solar power as an essential renewable energy resource and its assurance to expand solar power is evident in the ‘National Action Plan for Climate Change’ publicize the ‘National Solar Mission’ as one of the eight missions to struggle the confront of climate change.

 

 

-A Solar Park is fundamentally a particular developed area , solar power plant project developer can be set up by large-scale power plants or developed amenities for solar power projects. Usually, a solar park will have the ability to set up about 3-5 GW capability power plants. This notion has been well acknowledged by the respective state governments and effort on land recognition and assessment is on in Gujarat and Rajasthan and with that proposal the Gujarat state government has install one solar park in Patan district. Other than few solar city master plans for are set up in cities like Gandhinagar, Chandigarh, and Faridabad. It incorporate decrease of confidence on fossil fuels by the function of energy maintenance and competence trial and enhancement energy supply by nearby obtainable renewable energy resources. Before the Solar City Programme , of the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) strategy are happening to obtain Gandhinagar and Chandigarh as representation of solar cities.

 

Biomass Gasifier

A biomass gasifier, mount in the village would supply electricity and the heat commencing the gasifier would be refrigerated and used for the cold storage. This would assist the goal for need of both cold storage and power deliver. Biomass – solar hybrid systems for only if decentralized cold storage amenities in rural areas all along with power supply. This will guide to employment opportunity for farmers who can stock up their create and promote it at a later date. A solar multi-utility charging centre has been put up in Assam. It develop solar energy to produce power, which is used for a diversity of functions like charging lanterns, computers , water purifier , powering appliances, mobile phones etc.

At present, a main element of  the power   requirement in the country is met from fossil fuels. Though, there is massive possibility for renewable energy known the huge land mass that obtain amongst the maximum solar irradiation in the world. The extended coastline and elevated wind velocities that offer sufficient prospect for both land-based and offshore wind farms. A important yearly fabrication of biomass and many rivers and waterways that can be well tap for hydropower.

Wind Energy Grid

Between all the renewable energy sources linked to the national grid, wind energy compiles for 70% of renewable resource. Tamil Nadu is the first state in the country , for wind energy utilization with a whole installed capability of 5072.80 MW. Karnataka has also taken the lead in grid linked solar power plants with a sum installed capability of 6 MW. Other than this, Karnataka is also one of the principal states to set up solar water heating systems with an installed portion of about 2.3 million sq m.

Power from conventional sources such as coal, oil, natural gas, etc. is inadequate in quantity and if used up at the present speed, it will be worn out in the coming decades. Thus   manufacturing renewable sources of power as one of the dangerous ways for the future. As we see Gujarat is one of the biggest states of the country, encompassing a large quantity of waste land beside good solar radiation and wind resource for the majority part of the year. Apart from solar and wind energy other sources such as biomass, tidal, and geothermal resources are also obtainable in the state .

 

Refrences :-

www.teriin.org

www.ethree.com

Renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, and hydro can reduce the negative impact of climate change also it increases the energy accessibility to far off areas . Subsequent to this , it will also create great employment apportunities . Currently, renewable energy provides 19% of the global energy consumption. With appropriate policies and governmental initiatives it could help in meeting three fourths of the global energy requirements by 2050 as per UN estimates.

 

Mini & Micro grids

 

Mini and Micro grids can amplify   to cover   over 1.4 billion population those who have no accessibility   to power  . Currently a main segment of India’s  power   requirement are collected from fossil fuels. However there is an enormous potential for renewable energy specified its big landmass that receive a vital quantity of solar radiation. The Jawaharlal National Solar Mission was launched in 2009. Aiming to create solar energy an imperative part of India’s power future.

 

Solar power technology ( CSP )

 

Among the rising demand for sustainable energy focused solar power (CSP) technologies are on the edge of big scale worldwide consumption. Such technologies connect concerted sunlight to produce electricity. In the upcoming era , the CSP market is predictable to be significant in excess of a billion dollars. The Government of India too has recognized solar power as an essential renewable energy resource and its assurance to expand solar power is evident in the ‘National Action Plan for Climate Change’ publicize the ‘National Solar Mission’ as one of the eight missions to struggle the confront of climate change.

 

 

-A Solar Park is fundamentally a particular developed area , solar power plant project developer can be set up by large-scale power plants or developed amenities for solar power projects. Usually, a solar park will have the ability to set up about 3-5 GW capability power plants. This notion has been well acknowledged by the respective state governments and effort on land recognition and assessment is on in Gujarat and Rajasthan and with that proposal the Gujarat state government has install one solar park in Patan district. Other than few solar city master plans for are set up in cities like Gandhinagar, Chandigarh, and Faridabad. It incorporate decrease of confidence on fossil fuels by the function of energy maintenance and competence trial and enhancement energy supply by nearby obtainable renewable energy resources. Before the Solar City Programme , of the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) strategy are happening to obtain Gandhinagar and Chandigarh as representation of solar cities.

 

Biomass Gasifier

A biomass gasifier, mount in the village would supply electricity and the heat commencing the gasifier would be refrigerated and used for the cold storage. This would assist the goal for need of both cold storage and power deliver. Biomass – solar hybrid systems for only if decentralized cold storage amenities in rural areas all along with power supply. This will guide to employment opportunity for farmers who can stock up their create and promote it at a later date. A solar multi-utility charging centre has been put up in Assam. It develop solar energy to produce power, which is used for a diversity of functions like charging lanterns, computers , water purifier , powering appliances, mobile phones etc.

At present, a main element of  the power   requirement in the country is met from fossil fuels. Though, there is massive possibility for renewable energy known the huge land mass that obtain amongst the maximum solar irradiation in the world. The extended coastline and elevated wind velocities that offer sufficient prospect for both land-based and offshore wind farms. A important yearly fabrication of biomass and many rivers and waterways that can be well tap for hydropower.

Wind Energy Grid

Between all the renewable energy sources linked to the national grid, wind energy compiles for 70% of renewable resource. Tamil Nadu is the first state in the country , for wind energy utilization with a whole installed capability of 5072.80 MW. Karnataka has also taken the lead in grid linked solar power plants with a sum installed capability of 6 MW. Other than this, Karnataka is also one of the principal states to set up solar water heating systems with an installed portion of about 2.3 million sq m.

Power from conventional sources such as coal, oil, natural gas, etc. is inadequate in quantity and if used up at the present speed, it will be worn out in the coming decades. Thus   manufacturing renewable sources of power as one of the dangerous ways for the future. As we see Gujarat is one of the biggest states of the country, encompassing a large quantity of waste land beside good solar radiation and wind resource for the majority part of the year. Apart from solar and wind energy other sources such as biomass, tidal, and geothermal resources are also obtainable in the state .

 

Refrences :-

www.teriin.org

www.ethree.com

Various kinds of Rotors/Propellers in hydrokinetic tubines,

Sep 9, 2017   //   by admin   //   Knowledge Base  //  No Comments

A Hydrokinetic turbine is a turbine originator to generate electricity in a free run environment. It does not require a dam . It is utilized in the special term called the In stream Energy Generation Technology (IEGT) which places turbines in rivers, tidal waters, or ocean currents and man made channels as well. These turbines make use of flow of water to twist them, thus producing electricity for the power grid . In outcome, IEGT is like placed windmills in the water which is generally very environment friendly. While hydrokinetic comprises production from currents and waves & ocean tides . The most practical application in the near future will be in streams and rivers .

A Hydrokinetic turbine is basically based on the principle of rotating directional power into rotational power by utilizing definite quantity of surface to be in contact with the solution faction over a period of time in order to tie together a large amount of power as much as possible. There are various factors on which it depends like shape, spacing between blades, angle of de fraction which can significantly advance the effectiveness of a turbine. Thus it is utilized in the area of research in make out of the best hydrokinetic turbine appropriate for its exact position of appliance. There are various types of low head turbines, rotors/Propellers are designed and utilized which are mentioned below:-

 

Kind of low head turbines

These Turbines suitable for use in very small head function and are different from the propeller, Pelton / Kaplan types used in more conventional hydro which are large in size.

Various kinds of low head application turbines are as follows:-

  • Axial Flow Rotor Turbine: In this type of turbine there is a concentric hub which is attached to radial blades and it looks like a wind mill. Whichever , a construct of a hydraulic pump or electrical generator which rotate an electrical generator on ground in order to generate electricity.
  • Open Center Fan Turbine: This special type consist of two donut shaped turbines which rotate in the opposite direction of the current. This in turn runs a hydraulic pump that in turn drives a standard electrical generator.
  • Helical Turbine: This type of turbine has hydrofoil sections that keep the turbine oriented to the flow of the water. The leader edge of the blades turns in the direction of the water.
  • Cycloidic Turbine: The cycloidic turbine resembles a paddle wheel, where the flow of the water turns the wheel with lift and drag being optimized. Lift or flutter vanes looks like a huge Venetian blind.
  • Hydroplane blades: They are made to oscillate by the flowing water, thus generating electricity.
  • FFP Turbine Generator: This type of turbine uses a rim-mounted, permanent magnet, direct-drive generator with front and rear diffusers and one moving part (the rotor) to maximize efficiency.

Other useful Rotors/Propellers are as follows:-

 

Oscillating Water Column– Using a bell shaped housing, this device floats atop the ocean surface confine the natural rise and fall of the waves allowing the air entrapped above the waves to become pressurized with every rise. As the top of the structure becomes smaller, the force of the air becomes smaller and the speed increases which is converted to electrical energy via a compressor turbine.

 

Heave Surge Device– A snake-like device that rides atop the ocean surface set into the path of oncoming waves and is tethered at the front to the ocean floor. As a wave passes over the first section, a rotational motion is set forth causing the energy of rotation to increase as the wave reaches the next section. A set of hydraulic fluid pumps located in the last joint at the back of the device are forced through the rotational energy to turn a motor which converts this into electrical power through a generator.

 

Tidal Turbine– In accessing the underwater ocean currents or natural flow of rivers and tides, underwater turbines can be utilized much like wind turbines in converting a directional flow of energy into rotational mechanical energy. Since wind turbines have been designed and in use for much longer, many companies have turned to these designs to develop underwater turbines which harness the power in much the same way. Other companies have looked at large propellers from ships to account for the fluid dynamics involved with efficient water flow through spinning blades. Although the conventional design is to set the rotating shaft in line with the flow of the water, some have started to research the advantages of placing the rotating shaft vertical to the flow, allowing a larger surface area to come into contact with the flow, but dramatically decreasing the outgoing flow velocity.

 

Various forms of Solar Panels

Sep 9, 2017   //   by admin   //   Knowledge Base  //  No Comments

Solar Energy is the second most widely used renewable form of energy after Hydropower. It is predicted that solar energy will show a steady increase and will provide a third of the total energy by 2060. A solar panel is a packaged or connected assembly of photovoltaic cells. It is further connected to make a large photo voltaic system to generate electricity for residential and commercial purposes. Solar panels are most efficient when they are facing sun in an angle close to the perpendicular. Due to the rotation of earth this angle is variant throughout the year. We need to adjust the angles of mounts four times throughout the year.

  • Feb 5th – same angle as your latitude.
  • May 5th – same angle as your latitude minus 15 degrees. At noon the panel will be almost horizontal to the ground.
  • August 5th – Set at the same angle as your latitude.
  • November 5th – Set at the angle of latitude plus 15 degrees. This tilts your panels towards the sun as it travels low in the southern sky during the winter season.

There are four forms of solar panels:-

  • Trackers
  • Fixed racks
  • Ground- mounted
  • Rooftop solar panels
  • Building Integrated Photovoltaic(BIPV)

Trackers: –

These behave like sunflowers in nature. A solar tracker is a device that orients various payloads toward the sun. They sense the direction of the Sun and tilt the panels as needed for maximum exposure to the light. There are two types of application of photo-voltaic trackers:-

  • Flat-panel photovoltaic – trackers are used to minimize the angle of incidence between the incoming light and a photovoltaic panel.
  • Concentrated photovoltaic – trackers are used to enable the optical components in the CPV and CSP systems.

Solar energy collectors or payloads can be mounted in two different ways either Fixed or Moving. Fixed collectors have rotating mirrors instead of solar panels, while In Moving collectors use single or dual axis for rotation.

Fixed Racks: –

Fixed racks hold panels stationary as the sun moves across the sky. The panels move with the earth’s orbit to capture the greatest amount of solar energy possible. The fixed rack sets the angle at which the panel is held. Tilt angles equivalent to an installation’s latitude are common. It can be fixed on ground, pole or roof.

Ground-mounted: –

It is the most easy way of mounting. These use racks or frames to hold solar panels attached to ground based mounting supports like cement slabs. These have optimal efficiency and solar power tracking abilities. These are easy to maintain and clean. The ground- mounting based support includes:-

  • Pole mounts – These can be directly fixed in ground or embedded with a help of concrete.
  • Foundation mounts – These are fixed with help of a slab or rack for e.g. cement slab.
  • Ballasted footing mounts – These have concrete slabs and steel bases to hold system in position and doesn’t need penetrations.

Roof mounted :-

These are the most popular form of mounting and have best application where there is less space available especially in metro cities. In this type of mounting system solar panel is held via rack or a frame and is integrated into the roof of a building with a few inches gap and parallel to the surface of the roof. These includes following types of supports: –

  • Pole mounts: These are directly attached to roof via a pole.
  • Ballasted mounts: These are connected via concrete or steel bases. These allows to the rearrangement of solar panel systems with no adverse effect on the roof structure.

Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV):

Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) are photovoltaic materials that are used to replace conventional building materials while the construction of buildings. These are catching much popularity as it is cost efficient and can be integrated at the time of construction only. They are available in several forms like flat roofs, pitched roofs, facade and glazing.

Among all flat roofs is most widely used technology which uses thin film modules integrated in to flexible polymer membrane. Pitched roofs have modules shaped like roof tiles and increase the roof life by protecting insulating membrane and degradation by water. Facades can be installed on existing buildings and giving old buildings a new look to the building. And Glazing use semi-transparent PV materials at the time of construction only.

Various forms of hydrokinetic turbines

Sep 9, 2017   //   by admin   //   Knowledge Base  //  No Comments

Hydrokinetic turbines use the kinetic energy stored in flowing water to generate more usable forms of energy. In ancient times turbines have application only in small water bodies but with the advancement in technology they can extract energy from waves, tides and currents of oceans and sea. These have potential to provide sustainable and dependable source of energy and much potential for future energy needs.

There are various forms of hydro-kinetic turbines:-

1) Traditional turbines

2) Wave energy converters

3) Rotating devices

Traditional water turbines: –

Traditional water turbines like Kalpan turbines, Water wheels and Reverse Archimedes’ screw used diversions and reservoirs for power generation. It has applications in rural areas in small hydro power plants. A typical micro hydro power plant has an automatic controller operates the turbine inlet valve to maintain constant frequency when the load changes on the generator. The kinetic energy of water allows the turbines to move and then mechanical energy is then converted into usable forms. The turbine is connected to a generator which supplies power to utility grid.

 

Wave Energy Converters: –

These devices harness the surface energy of waves in to other useful forms of energy. The energy generated is function of density of water and the speed of flowing water. The wave energy converters can be further differentiated into the following types:-

  1. i) Attenuators: –

They are long and multi segmented structure which floats parallel to the direction of waves. The attenuator is positioned perpendicularly to incoming waves. Some devices tap only the vertical motion while others tap both vertical and horizontal motions. The device captures energy as the motion of the wave causes it to contract where they the fragments connect. The energy hence produced drives generators and pumps.

  1. ii) Point absorber: –

Point absorbers harnesses surface energy of waves coming from all directions in vertical motion. The energy of waves causes buoyant top portion to move in up and down direction. This movement of the top portion drives generators and produces electric current

iii) Oscillating wave surge converter: –

Oscillating wave surge converter extracts energy from wave surges (vertical motion) and the movement of water particles within them. . It uses the oscillation between flap and a fixed point. This movement creates a usable form of mechanical energy and produces current.

  1. iv) Oscillating water column: –

Oscillating water columns is a partially submerged hollow structure. Waves are then directed into the lower part the surface by a funnel like structure, forcing the water column to rise and fall. This piston like movement pressurizes and depressurizes water column inside the body and this pressure of movement of air is used to move the turbine which produces current.

  1. v) Overtopping device: –

It is a floating reservoir like structure. The device creates water level to rise to break into reservoir with a funnel shaped structure. The water is then returned back to the sea after passing through various water turbines which later on generate electricity.

  1. vi) Submerged pressure differential: –

These are located near shore and attached to the water bed. The motion of waves which causes waterlevel to rise and fall over the device. The alternating pressure of waves is utilised to generate electricity.

vii) Bulge wave: –

Bulge wave consists of a rubber tube filled with water, anchored to the waterbed heading into the waves. The water enters through the stern and the passing wave causes pressure variations along the length of the tube, creating a ‘bulge’. The energy created by the bulge can used to drive turbines at the bend and water is then returned back to the sea.

Rotating devices: –

Rotating devices are constructed within in the water body to capture kinetic energy of flowing water which allows turbine to rotate and hence generating power. It uses heaving and swaying of waves creating a rotational energy that turns the rotor or the turbine. Some of the rotating device have design like wind turbines and have horizontal axis while the more practical version of rotating devices have vertical axis which resembles egg beaters.

Use in Inverters in solar power system

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A solar photovoltaic system harness solar energy to generate electricity. Inverters are the main component of a solar power system. They convert DC current from solar panels into AC current that can be supplied to the utility grid.

They can be classified in to mainly three types:-

  • Grid tie Inverters:

They are not connected to batteries and is designed to protect the system from Islanding. They automatically shut down when there is no power supply.

  • Stand-alone Inverters:

Stand-alone inverters draw DC current from batteries charged by charge controllers of PV systems. They are normally need not connected to the utility grid and do not need anti-islanding protection.

  • Battery Backup Inverters:

These can manage battery charge via on-board charger. These inverters are capable of supplying AC energy to selected loads when utility fails, and are required to have anti-islanding protection.

Solar inverters must supply electricity in sine wave form, which co-ordinated with frequency of the utility grid on the AC side of inverters, feed limited voltage into the grid which normally less than or equal to the frequency of grid.

On DC side, the power output of a module varies in such a way the output produced is maximum. For achieving this purpose inverters use Maximum Power Point Tracking or MPPT technology via charge controller. Charge controllers are devices which regulate the voltage supply, store excess power in battery and supply a regulated power in to the grid.

And MPPT can be defined as a technique by which solar power system tends to gain maximum output by a solar panel. The PV system applies the following three techniques to obtain MPPT:

  • Perturb and observe:

In this method the charge controllers adjust the voltage by small amount from the system, and measures power supply if the supply of power increases it makes further needed adjustments until there is no power supply.

–       Incremental conductance:

In this method the controller measures the increase in the current and voltage in the system and predicts the effect of change in voltage on the system. This method is more fast and efficient than perturb and observe method.

–       Constant voltage:

The power delivered to the load is momentarily interrupted and the open-circuit voltage with zero current is measured. The controller then resumes operation with the voltage controlled at a fixed ratio, of the open-circuit voltage, which has empirically been determined as the estimated maximum power point.

Some PV systems use solar micro inverters for each panel. It is a type of solar inverter which is connected to single solar panel and converts AC input from that single panel to DC output. The key feature of solar micro inverter is it’s control over the single panel and mounting which allows the panel to increase its output. Each Micro-Inverter has individual has MPPT technique for its panel.

Micro inverters have become much popular in the places where array are small in size and every panel is concerned. It is useful for residential purposes where there is a problem of shading and it is advised to not to connect the panels.

Solar inverters may sometimes fail due to following reasons:-

·      Capacitor failure:-

–       Electrolytic materials age faster than polycarbonate and other dry dielectric materials

–       Voltage stress

–       Continuous operation under maximum voltage conditions

–       Frequent short-term voltage transients

–       Current stress

–       High current increases the internal temperature

–       Thermal stress on component terminals

–       Improper Charge and discharge rates

–       Not operating in ambient temperatures

–       Mechanical stress

–       Vibrations

·      Inverter bridge failure

–       Excess use beyond the operating limit

–       Excess of voltage and current supply

–       Malfunctioning of components

–       Thermal shock

–       Thermal overload

·      Electro-mechanical wear

–       Component stress

–       Impurity at contacts

–       Temperature variations

 

Types and efficiency of solar panels

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Solar panels can be differentiated in to following types on the basis of material used-

 

  • Thin Film Modules
  • Silicon Modules
  • Polymer Modules

 

Thin Film Modules –

They connect Thin Film solar cells (TFSC) together to generate electricity. They are third generation solar cells with high productivity with low costs. TFSC is a solar cell that is made by depositing one or more thin layers (thin film) of PV material on a substrate. It is also called a thin film photovoltaic cell (TFPV). They have easy installation process and can be installed on to the roofs either finished or integrated roof covering. These have less weighted in comparison to traditional solar panels. These are usually categorized according to the PV material used:-

 

  1. Thin Film Silicon
  2. Cadmium telluride (CdTe)
  3. Copper indium gallium selenide (CIS or CIGS)
  4. Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC)

 

They are two types of Thin film modules: –

 

1) Rigid thin modules:-

 

In rigid thin film modules the cell is created over a glass or substrate and the electrical connections are created in a “monolithic integration”. It is then laminated with a transparent sheet or a glass sheet.

 

2) Flexible Thin film modules:-

 

These are produced in the same production line by depositing a layer of photoactive materials on a flexible substrate.

The cells are then assembled into modules and are laminated with a transparent colourless fluoropolymer and polymer suitable for bonding on the back side.

 

 

Crystalline Silicon: –

In these types of cells the core material is crystalline silicon (c-Si). This is later on separated on is separated into numerous categories according to crystallinity and crystal. The advantage of cystalline silicon modules is that their individual parts can be recycled for e.g. glass, plastics and metals by various recycling processes. There are two types of crystalline silicon:-

 

1) Mono crystalline silicon (c-Si): – They are single crystal wafer cells. They aren’t completely square in shape and leave a little gap in the cell. These are more expensive then Polycrystalline Silicon solar cells as they have high silicon levels.

 

2) Polycrystalline Silicon (poly-Si): – They are made up of square ignots (molten silicon). Poly-Si cells are less expensive to produce than single crystal silicon cells, but are less efficient. But the overall construction overcomes the efficiency so they are good for roof mounting.

 

 

Polymer Solar Cell –

It is made up of polymers i.e. large molecules with repeating structural units that produce electricity from sunlight by the PV effect. These include organic solar cells also called plastic solar cells. This technology is comparatively new and is currently being very actively researched by universities, national laboratories, and companies around the world. Compared to silicon-based devices, polymer solar cells are lightweight, disposable and inexpensive to fabricate, flexible, and customizable on the molecular level. They also have lower potential for negative environmental impact. Organic PV’s are made of electron donor and electron acceptor materials instead of semiconductor p-n junctions. The molecules forming the electron donor region of organic PV cells, where excited electron-hole pairs are generated, are conjugated polymers possessed with delocalized π electrons.

 

There are various factors effecting the efficiency of a solar panel:-

 

1) Temperature: –

Though heat is good for solar panel but like other semi-conductors excess of heat can harm the solar panels. For every 1% variation in silicon PV modules the efficiency can reduced up to 0.5% and 0.25% in amorphous cells.

 

2) Mounting and positioning: –

The mounting and positioning of solar panels is an important factor which decides the efficiency of solar panels. An open location always has much access to sunlight then a place with shade.

 

3) Partial Shading: –

The panels are obvious to produce less power when are placed under shade. When the panels are in series even if only one panel is under shade the system will get affected. So, In situations where shading is unavoidable it is advised not to connect the panels in series.

 

4) Materials used: –

The efficiency of solar panels largely depends upon the material used. The silicon modules are efficient then Thin film modules.

 

A solar panel with minimum voltage of 24 V would normally have around 72 consituent solar cells, resulting into current upto 28.8 volts. If the voltage exceeds this limit current drops off rapidly , resulting in Maximum power output.

When the panel is connected to the battery with charge controller, the battery will attract the volatge. It results into low efficiency of panels until the battery is fully charged. To reduce these defects the panels use MPPT technology which maintains optimum voltage supply in the system.

 

Types of Renewable Energy

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Renewable energy is energy which is derived from natural processes and can be replenished constantly. There are mainly 4 types of Renewable energy:

  • Biofuel
  • Biomass
  • Geothermal
  • Hydropower
  • Solar energy
  • Wind power

 

Biofuel– Biofuel is a type of fuel derived from biological carbon fixation or gasification. Biofuels are originated from biomass conversion, solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. These are mainly used in transportation sector since they have high density and are clean burning fuels. This is the main reason why almost all the vehicles use liquid form of fuels for combustion purposes. These are the best way of reducing the emission of the greenhouse gases. They can also be looked upon as a way of energy security which stands as an alternative of fossil fuels that are limited in availability. Biofuel production is assessed to reach 105 billion litres in 2010 and provides 2.7% of the world’s fuels for transport the biofuels. These are further divided into two types:-

First Generation Biofuels or Conventional Biofuels: These types of biofuels are obtained from conventional methods of production and derived from sugar, starch, animal fat and vegetable oils. Given below are some most popular types of first generation bio-fuels:-

–           Biogas

–           Bio diesel

–           Vegetable Oil

–           Bio alcohols

–           Bio Ethers

–           Solid Bio fuels

–           Syngas

 

Second Generation or Advanced Biofuels: These are non –conventional Bi o fuels mainly produced from non-food feedstock for e.g. wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, energy crops and are still underdeveloped. It includes:-

–           Biomass to Liquid

–           Cellulosic ethanol

–           BioDME/Methanol

–           Biosynthetic Natural Gas (BioSNG)

–           Bio-oil/Bio-crude

–           Algae biofuels

–           Wood Diesel

–           Bio hydrogen

–           Bioelectricity/CHP

 

Biomass – Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. Biomass is carbon, hydrogen and oxygen based. It is derived from numerous sources, including the by-products from the timber industry, agricultural crops, raw material from the forest, major parts of household waste and wood. It is used to generate electricity with turbines and gasifiers or produce heat and is an important source of energy and the most important fuel worldwide after coal, oil and natural gas. These can be further converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel and other biofuels by various conversion processes like Thermal conversion, Chemical conversion, and Bio Chemical conversion.

Geothermal Energy– The origin of the word “Geothermal” comes from the Greek word “Geo” which means Earth and Thermal means heat So Geothermal energy is produced from naturally occurring steam and hot water from Earth’s crust. At the core of the Earth, thermal energy is created by radioactive decay and temperatures may reach over 5000o C. Heat conducts from the core to surrounding cooler rock. The high temperature and pressure cause some rock to melt and leads to the formation of ‘magma’. The global installed capacity for geothermal energy is 28 GW. It is originated from radioactive decay of minerals inside the Earth’s surface. It is clean, cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly. It can be used for greenhouses, fisheries, mineral recovery, thermo-dynamical processes and electricity. The geothermal resources are more than adequate to supply human energy needs, but aren’t exploited properly.

Hydropower – It is the energy derived from flowing water or running water. The history of hydropower is very old in form of watermills, turbines and hydraulic power pipe networks. It is mainly used for generating electricity, irrigational purposes and running machines like watermills, sawmills, textile mills, dock cranes etc. . It is the most widely used renewable form of energy constituting 16% of the global electricity consumption and 3,427 TW of electricity. It has an advantage over other forms of renewable energy as it is cheap, can be easily regulated, highly sustainable and eco-friendly as there is no CO2 emission.

Solar Energy- It is the second most widely used renewable form of energy after Hydropower. It is obtained from harnessing radiant light and heat from the sun. They are broadly characterised in to Active solar and Passive Solar depending upon their capacity to receive sunlight. Active solar technologies use photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors while Passive Solar technologies without solar ovens, indoor heating techniques, or orienting a building towards the sun without the use of mechanical and electrical devices.

It has a wide range of applications including solar heating, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity and solar architecture. It is indigenous, inexhaustible, sustainable, cheap and reduces pollution. In 2011 the photovoltaic capacity world-wide was 67.4 GW with an annual increase of 69.8%.is expected to grow to 1,443 GW by 2020. According to IEA “solar energy is one of the biggest resources that have shown steady increase and will provide a third of the total energy by 2060.”

Wind power- It is the conversion of Kinetic energy of wind into mechanical or electrical power. Wind power is also an ancient form of renewable energy for sailing, irrigation, grinding and pumping seawater for salt-making. It is now also used for generating electricity by using wind turbines. It is widely used at small scale generating   50 kW of electrical power. It is free, efficient, clean, produces no greenhouse gas or pollutants, can be setup in a very small area. But the wind capacity is highly dependent upon the speed and strength of wind and wind penetration since it is unreliable. According to a report by Energy Saving Trust almost 30 to 40 per cent of the country’s electricity needs will be provided by wind power by the year 2050. Presently wind capacity is growing at over 20% annually, from 198 GW in 2010 to 238 GW in 2011 and generates 437 TW h of electricity, around 2% of total electricity generation.

 

Tips of Long Lasting Battery Life

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This paper discusses and explains to the reader about the concept of battery and various ways to protect the life of the batteries for effiecient use of components.

Battery: a battery is a electrochemcical cell that in enclosed and protected in material that can be charged electrically to provide a static potential for power or release electrical power when needed.

The basic component of battery is that it has an anode, cathode and electrolyte which is like having a positive side, one negative and fluid filled which provides charge in between the two. Hence it is produces electricity through chemical reaction. A battery is a like a storage of power and energy which can be used whenever required. There are different types of battery that are used for different purposes.

Categories: A battery can only be classified into two types of categories namely primary battery and secondary battery. The primary battery is one that needs to be discarded once it has converted its chemical into electricity, while a secondary battery after its usage can still be reconstituted by passing electricity back through it. Hence it is also called storage or rechargeable battery.

Few of the many different kinds of batteries alongwith their basic features are given below:

  1. Sealed Lead Acid or SLA: these are highly cheap batteries that provide charge for about 3 years. And generally is used in backup emergency power source.
  2. Nickel- Cadium (Ni-Cd) Battery: this is also relatively inexpensive and widely available in the market. This provides charge whose consumption is fast and even discharge happens quick. It is used in appliances, audio-video equipments and toys.
  3. Nickel- Metal Hydride (Ni-MH): these batteries are widely used in laptops, camera, cellphones and offers battery life of about 2.5 hours to 4 hours. Its power capacity is about 1.2V.
  4. Lithium- Ion (Li-Ion)battery: this is the battery which is highly safe and stable and provides highest energy capacity. Hence is widely used for various appliances, toys, laptops, cellphones. The advantage of Lithium battery is that it has slow self- disclosure.

The battery comes with a finite life due to the unwanted chemical or physical changes that occur within the battery. This could also involve loss of elements and/or leakage of chemicals. Such changes are irreversible and often drastically affect the electrical performance of the cell. Preventing or reducing the chances for these unwanted

chemical reaction is the way for ensuring that battery life can be extended. This is entirely at the discretion of the user using the battery. The different ways to ensure battery’s long lasting life are as follows:

  •   Avoid Disassembling: try not to dissemble the parts of battery, toxic substances can prove dangerous at times. Or remove any protective layering fom the battery.
  •   Short-circuit: avoid attempting to short-circuiting the battery, it may cause heat and explosion is high possibility.
  •   Expsoure: Avoid putting the battery under the exposure of sun, water which may increase the temperature or put pressure on the cell and making chemicals react.
  •   Appliance specific: use the battery which is specifically designed for it. Changing

    the objects need and type of battery needed can be hazardous and may lead to explosion, fire or emmission of toxic fumes. Read the “type” of battery needed and use the same.

  •   Temperature: at the level of user, it is necessary to ensure that the temperature wherein the battery is kept is at the optimal room temperature, neither hot nor cold temperature is preferred for the functioning of the battery. Store it in a cool, dry place.
  •   Unsuitable Charging methods: overloading a cell during the discharge causes heat making many changes in chemical make up and allowing damage risks.
  •   Soldering : Never solder anything directly to a battery. This can destroy the safety features of the battery by damaging the safety vent inside the cap.
  •   Polarities: it is to be ensured that the battery’s when inserted that their polarities are never reversed as it may cause swelling or rupture thereby causing permanent damage.
  •   Unsuitable Chargers: specific charger should be used to charge. The battery discharge capacity needs to be under consideration before charging is considered.
  •   Over-charging at higher currents and reverse charging: never reverse charge or over charge with high current as it causes rapid gas generation causing the battery to swell and burst.
  •   Installation zone: avoid installing battery in an airtight battery compartment as gases like oxygen and hydrogen are released making the presence for source of ignition.
  •   Old and new battery usage: old, new battery usage needs to be avoided as difference in characterstic values may affect the appliances.
  •   Electrostat Discharge Bag: bags that are meant to protect components from electrostat discharge should be avoided as they are conducive in nature increasing the probablity for short-circuit.

Tele- Medicine For Remote Villages

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This paper briefs the reader about the concept of tele medicine, the need of tele medicine especially in remote villages. The advantages and disadvantages for the same.

Tele- Medicine: the definition of Tele medicine can be well established through the word itself. But in simple language, tele medicine is a exchange of medical information from one side to another through the use of electronic media. This is done to improve, maintain, assist patients’ health status.

This communication comprises of several medium for different purposes. For example, mediums as simple as a phone call for consultation to as complex as using surgical tools for operations or surgery. Purposes: assessment, diagnosis, second opinion, treatment, consultation or referrals, teaching classes for preventive practices.

Different Types of Categories are:

  1. Real time/ Synchronous: in this model, there is a direct communication established between the patients and/or the family with the doctor or specialist. This communication involves a phone call or video conferencing for consultation, examinations or operating over the patient. This is referred to as real time since the communication is directly between the parties. This involves usage of high- tech applications and tools for the communication and functioning.
  2. Store and Forward: this medium involves exchange of medical data by one party submitting and other acquiring the information at a convenient time. Hence it is not direct presence at one go, both party’s presence is not required. Largely, medical images, signals, films are sent for consultation and advice from higher specialists in designing the diagnosis and treatment plan.
  3. Asynchronous/ Home Health: this is very different category wherein the patient is assessed and/or monitored from the home directly. Home health equipment consists of vital signs, video conferencing and patient’s stats. This is high tech strategy developed through modern tele medicine since the person at home can receive best care from family while not occupying a bed in the hospital. But these are used for largely post- hospital care or disaster management or assisted living plans.

There is huge amounts of investment that has to be done on the devices that keep the link established and sustained since breakdown in the link could prove disastrous for the lives of the patients. However the situation in the remote villages are slightly different.

Scenario At Remote Villages:

In remote villages of any nations, the situation is rather different. The purpose of tele medicine proves extremely useful since there is lack of health care provisions around. Such villages are largely disconnected to the main spot where the Primary health care units have been established. Many communities dwell inside the locations such as in forest, islands which is marked by extreme rough distance and tough terrain to cross in extreme weathers. The patients doesn’t receive access to any health care since neither the patient has the mobility to travel nor health care provider.

Even if, health care practitioner comes, it is difficult to assess, diagnose especially without lab testing and provide immediate care at the spot. This is highly prevalent in areas which is distant and plagued with common diseases like cholera, malaria etc.

Advantages of Tele Medicine:

  1. Cost- Efficient: Tele medicine is an answer to reaching the health of the people in remote village without expenditure of money. The patient’s considerations over the expenses they have to face due to travel- vehicles, doctor’s units or referrals units is huge saving to the people to whom accessibility was a grave concern. For the professionals also, it saves time to physically reach out. Hence its efficient, convenient and potentially more cost effect delivery of health care.
  2. Saves Time: provision to consult saves lives whether its only urgent cases or at diagnostic level. The time drooled over understanding is minimized thereby buying more time for cure or treatment. Monitoring and evaluation of the patients’ care and treatment can be assessed without expenditure of time and money.
  3. Specialist Consultation- with the power and ability to consult specialist increases so does the chances of accurate diagnosis and treatment. The patients are directly able to share their concerns to the doctors in direct communication pattern. With modern and apt technological advances, tertiary services are provided. Inter or intra state or countries surgeries are conducted through wireless modes.
  4. Preventive care: with the advancement, not just curative but preventive care is offered to the people at remote distances through teaching and sharing of health information/ data. This also increases the access of people to health services thereby outreach of the professionals increases instantly

Disadvantages:

  1. Continuous connection of phone line or net especially in environmental pressures
  2. Man power training to handle the functioning of such tools in emergency time.
  3. Expenditure on tools and technology instead being provision of professionals.

Tailored power solutions for villages

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Sustainability of a country largely depends upon the development of rural sectors in the country. The development at grassroots will ultimately strengthen the economy of the country. Energy reforms in villages can act as an important factor in promoting social, economic and environmental development of villages. In order to promote the growth of small – scale industries and promote a more balanced and diversified economy energy supply is an important factor. Renewable energy or Non- conventional sources of energy can replenishable , environment friendly and sustainable can play a key role in sustainability.

The conventional energy based on fossil fuels has failed to solve the rural energy crisis. Some of the basic issues of energy requirements in rural araes are lack of access to domestic lighting, decreasing availability and labour involved in dependence on traditional ways of cooking, the pressure on environment .The use of kerosene adds to the cost of living. This has drastically affected their socio -economic development. Moreover, these haven’t reached marginalised society properly yet. India is blessed to have a large potential of non-conventional energy resources as in solar energy, hydro-power, bio- gas, wind-power. The problem of energy supplies in rural areas calls for a radical approach which seeks energy supply from locally available resources like cow dung, agro-wastes etc.

For a tropical country like India solar energy is having immense scope and possibilities waiting to be explored. It has a potential to meet all energy requirements. It can be used in three different forms: –

 

  • Solar thermal
  • Solar photovoltaic
  • Solar passive architecture
  • Solar ground water pumps
  • Solar Lanterns

 

Solar thermal has applications in solar water heating systems, solar cookers, and solar dryers while solar PV can be used for electrification, water pumping. Solar power systems are even more useful for remote villages which are off-grid or have low electricity supply. These can be mounted on ground, roof or pole easily. Using solar power inverters and power back-up generators are also good options for electricity purposes in villages. Solar passive architecture is applied construction activities and is embedded in roofs.

Solar power pumping systems is a worthy and economical option for irrigational purposes. These can pump water even when there are cloudy days. They are long-lasting, mobile and have economic benefits as they save electricity bills.

Solar Lanterns are used for illuminating purposes in villages. These have inbuilt recording with a lighting element which trap sunlight and can be used later on for lighting puposes. These are portable, affordable and handy.

Using solar power inverters and power back-up generators are also good options for electricity purposes in villages. However there is still less awareness then needed for solar energy.

 

Firewood is indeed the most important cooking fuel in rural areas. It is mostly used for cooking and heating. Most people in villages are dependent upon firewood, traditional mud stoves, and heating especially in winter season. By encouraging production of food and fodder will also help in promoting employment in big way, in planting, maintenance, in felling of trees, in processing of trees etc. Moreover, it will have favourable ecological effects through increase in tree cover, control of floods and soil erosion.

Agricultural wastes are one of the most common fuels for cooking purposes. With the use of improved and efficient technologies it is possible to increase the scope of rice husks, cotton stalks etc. as cooking or combustion fuels. In a situation where supplies of conventional energy and sources like firewood are decreasing and alternatives are unavailable , increase in energy supplies in forms of agricultural wastes will benefit the society in general and the rural poor people. These can be also used as gasification fuel which can be later used in boilers and furnaces.

Another promising alternative technology for villages is Biomass. It can be used for cooking and lighting and to carry out simple agricultural operations. Bio- mass can be further converted into other forms. Smokeless cooking stoves are now popular these days among rural peoples. Some of the common sources of biomass are agricultural waste (corn stalks, straw, sugarcane leftovers, bagasse, and manure etc.), wood materials (wood or bark, timber etc.), crops like (sugar beet, corn). These are clean and fuel efficient stoves. They not only produce less smoke but increase the thermal efficiency of wood. It reduces labour in fuel collection, smoke, cooking time and fuel usage. It also provides employment to women in construction.

India being a country of rivers is blessed with extreme potential in Hydro-power. These have nominal environmental and licensing procedures, are simplified and require less construction works these may be developed rapidly. And since the size of equipment used is small it is easier to transport in rural areas. Micro hydropower system is a robust technology which generates electricity from a stream of water. Only a small amount of water to generate power from these. A micro hydropower upto 25W is estimated to have potential to produce 15000 MW of electricity. It is one of the most effective solutions available for power generation in villages. It can be set-up in a place with perennial source of water availability.

Although there are ample resources available but their implementation and proper installation still needs awareness among villagers. Low-cost services should be emphasized in policies for providing electricity services to low-income households. Efforts should be made to improve affordability and access of these resources to rural people as to promote development.

Studies needed before implementing a renewable energy power system

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Renewable Energy power systems is accessible in varied resources , followed by numerous technologies. It is noticied that there are two types technologies which are used for such systems one which can be displaceable and the another which is non- displaceable such as wind and solar PV technologies . In that system operators can hold back output but cannot raise it if the wind or solar resource is unavailable. Thus for wind and solar PV technologies, it faced challenges to power system operators. It become uncertain for output generation when it owes to maintenance of reliability of the system . For example wind energy required important operational challenges rising , including restriction from transmission and minimum generation limitation . Due to uncertainty of output generation certain problem arises such as relatively less speedy slope in wind generation due to passage of huge trail storm & requirement of operational reserves. No doubt , electricity demand also varies timely but its actions is usually well understood from decades of practice and the urbanized capacity to predict load with rational accurateness a day in advance. Thus there is need to proper study & assessment for REPS ( Renewable Energy Power System ) . Thus it is often suggested that improved operating procedures and strategies are desirable and should be take up to include the uniqueness of changeable generation. This will help to know technical feasibility to generate power with the help of wind and solar energy .

 

RE Futures discover several equipped proposition  of very high levels of renewable generation . Typically, transmission of the energy is a challenging and lengthy process. Thus there is need proactive planning looking in to future prospects of in order to persuade long term goals rewable energy penetration and its utilization as a system. For example:-

  • Maintaining system consistency
  • Ensuring ample active power transmit ability
  • Economically reasonable
  • As long as , right to use the most cost – valuable renewable resources
  • Stimulating transportation
  • Supporting efficient power markets by lessening obstruction
  • Preparation for future transmission passage requirements, not just those straight away evident.
  • Bearing in mind all alternative along with extra-high-voltage AC & DC, and machinery    progress like superconductors.
  • By making sure that non-wire alternatives are completely considered for eg: efficiency and locally   dispersed production.
  • As much as possible minimizing impacts on native population, animals , plants overall environment such as reducing green house gases emission , impacts of harmful pollutants etc.

Emphasis should be given to the benefits from the uses of power system to society than the cost incurred in order to achieve goals of using Renewable power energy systems.

Along with transmission, operational feasibility is also required like efficient markets.

 

Moreover in order to improve the forecasting of wind and solar energy there is need to develop interconnections between the close by and far off regions . Increment in the use of stored options.

 

RE Futures also lie at the hourly replication level which can be examine with the help of case study , in order to know that the system can meet predictable heaps with high levels of renewable electricity & its generation. Importantly  investigation of system reliability for huge renewable generations can be done by knowing the time & analysis the power flow of AC . Moreover along with these criteria the study and research needs to done in details infringing the pros and cons of it . Such as quantitative impacts & the suggestions basis on these impacts for power generation.

 

REPE needs to be studied & fabricate planning issues from transmission & generation of electricity power system by using renewable energy up to 80 %. A standard production model set up on the bases of observation made on the level of transmissions , the model execute economic unit assurance and economic transmit, founded on an optimization that assemble load and hold back requirement at minimum cost, focus on to a range of limitations on the system. A reliable operating system in such a model should well considered two aspects i.e data development and model development.

-Data Development

obtain additional comprehensive data on the output of variations and renewable resources to a large way and the connection of these resources with load. Data must be received from year to year as every time the technology varied & thus can generate good statistics

– Model Development

Operational tools and models should be planned & developed in such a way that with less cost  more penetration can be generated by using renewable energy . It should also address technical and institutional issues so that timely scheduling can be done in order to access market flexibility. Then researching the market changes from time to time so that it can deal with close to zero margin.

Moreover analysis of bulk power and alternative models can also be explored.

 

Refrences

 

– Renewable Electricity Futures Study

Volume 4: Exploration Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

Michael Milligan,1 Erik Ela,1 Jeff Hein,2 Thomas Schneider,1 Gregory Brinkman,1 Paul Denholm1

1 National Renewable Energy Laboratory

2 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, formerly

-GE Energy. (2007). Intermittency Analysis Project: Appendix B: Impact of Intermittent Generation on Operation of California Power Grid. CEC-500-2007-081-APB. http://www.uwig.org/CEC-500-2007-081-apb.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2012.

 

Solar water heating systems for houses

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Solar Water heaters or SWH systems are special models created to utilize solar energy for obtaining hot water for various purposes. Solar water heating (SWH) systems consist of numerous innovations and considered as one of the renewable energy technologies that have been well conventional used for many years. There are numerous places where   SWH has been widely used including India all over the world like  in Turkey , China, Austria, Cyprus, Israel, Japan, Austria , China and Austaralia. It is observed to be of two kinds. One is “closed coupled systems” and the other is “Pump circulated systems”.

In a “close-coupled” SWH system the storage tank is parallel mounted above the solar collectors on the topside. The hot water naturally rises into the tank with the help of thermo siphon flow. In a “pump-circulated” system the storage tank is floor or ground mounted. It is below the altitude of the collectors and with the help of a circulating pump water moves or heat transfer fluid is used in between the collectors and the tanks. It is specially designed to deliver hot water for complete year. One of the disadvantage is that in winter sometimes there would not be sufficient solar heat gain for the production of hot water.

Solar water heaters are also active or passive in nature. An active system electric pump is used to circulate the heat-transfer fluid whereas in a passive system no pump is required. How much quantity of hot water a solar water heater can produce is depending on the size and type of the system, availability of solar rays ( Sun) at the place, appropriate fitting, and the angle and direction of the collectors.

A solar heating system for houses.

Solar heater system

Solar Water heating :

Hot water heated through the sun rays is used in numerous ways. Although possibly used in a residential setting in order to offer household hot water and producing electricity as well. It is designed in a appropriate manner   for sunny days. It is of great advantage as it is simple to use and comparatively cheaper can be very well used for places with the hot climatic conditions . Solar energy has promoted by many countries like China, Europe & Japan . It follows the heating process via system set up in houses for further use of heat produced.

For heating water by solar energy a system is set up , here a collector is generally fixed firmly to a roof / wall facing the direct sun rays on a working fluid. This working fluid is either pumped through an active system or entered through a passive system by means of natural convention . A collector is an insulated box made up of simple glass material. A flat metal sheet attached with it act as a solar absorber . It is then connected with a copper pipe and set of dark colored metal tubes surrounded by a glass cylinder also called as vacuum.

Residential solar thermal established as mentioned before passive or compact and active or pumped systems comprises of an auxiliary energy source i.e an outer source electric heating system , outer gas connection or a central heating element using fuel oil. A minimum temperature is maintained in a tank at 55 °C . It becomes active only when water persuaded in the tank will fall below this maintained temperature. In this way hot water can be available most of the time.

Solar water heating and hot-water central heating system can also used in combination. Solar heat will either be determined in a pre-heating tank that supply into main tank where heat is generated through a central heating mechanism. Else the solar heat exchanger will put back the minor heating element and the higher element will stay behind in existing place in order to supply for any type of heating at times when solar energy is unavailable . The main need of central heating mechanism is during night and during winter season due unavailability of solar power. Thus solar water heating system can produce up 85 % of useful domestic hot water.

In India Banglore is emerged in first place to deploy solar water heating mechanism .A single heater can generate up to 200 MW per day. Moreover it is also among the first in reducing rebate of 50 on monthly electricity bills in placing an incentive mechanism for residents using roof-top thermal systems. These systems ate paramount for the rest of the structures as well.

Another city , in western India Pune also built up solar water heaters for households and promote its installation.

 

Solar Powered Villages across the world

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Solar power is used throughout the world at various places. Putting in place many innovative systems on large and  small scales. There are many solar villages all over the world. Some of them are mentioned below : –

Village Bysaniavaripalle in southeastern state of Andhra Pradesh is  now 100 utilizing  solar power . Keringa in Southern Orissa , most of the people are living in extreme poverty & live upon primarily available income generating opportunities like selling seasonal agricultural products , breaking stones, construction workers etc. With the help of solar lams the entire village is now rely upon & bring change in their lives.

Families utilizing Solar energy

Solar power emerge as a boon to rural households in India. If we see the evolution of generating power with the help of solar energy is proved to be a boom & helped in rural transformation. In India first plant custom-built under JNNSM scheme REHPL at Sadeipali, , Orissa , Tata Power – Patapur, Orissa. Tata Power -, Osmanabad, Maharastra. , Amruth Solar Power Plant – Kadiri , Andhra Pradesh  are work out to set up in 2011. IIT Bombay – Gwal Pahari , Haryana  , Chandraleela Power Energy Narnaul Haryana, Green Infra Solar Energy Rajkot, TAL Solar Power Plant – Barabanki, UP . The Charanka Solar Park is a compilation of solar power stations with 214 MW were claimed to be completed in 2012. It is branch of Gujarat Solar Park a cluster of solar farms at a range of locations in the Gujarat state of India in general capability of approximately 690 MW . There are a sum total of 570 MW of solar parks alone in Golmund.

Solar energy around is well utilized in Europe , Saudi Arabia, Germany and many other countries are up to it. Village Freiburg in Germany is set up as a solar village & seen green movement form a long time.

 

 

Bender Bayla,solar VillageFreiburg in Germany

Generates 80.7 MV electricity.

 

Setting up of Solar plants across the world is in one of the boom these days .Numerous large plants are under construction at various places all over the world . Some of them are :- The Desert Sunlight Solar Farm is a 550 MW solar power plant under construction in Riverside County, California, with the help of thin-film solar photovoltaic component made by Solar energy . The 230 MW Antelope Valley Solar Ranch is a First Solar photovoltaic project which is found   in the Antelope Valley area of the Western Mojave Desert expected to be completed in 2013.

The Topaz Solar Farm is a 550 MW photovoltaic power plant build in San Luis Obispo County and the  Blythe Solar Power Project is a 500 MW photovoltaic in Riverside County, California. The Agua Caliente Solar Project is a 290 megawatt photovoltaic solar producing capacity being built in Yuma County, Arizona.

The California Valley Solar Ranch (CVSR) is claim to produce around 250 megawatt MW by the use of   solar photovoltaic power plant, which is being built in the Carrizo Plain situated towards northeast of California Valley. Several plants are incorporated through agriculture and some use ground-breaking tracking systems that go after the sun’s every day trail across the sky to produce supplementary energy than conventional permanent mounted systems. Solar power plants have no fuel expenditure or release during process.

The Agua Caliente Solar Project ( Yuma County, Arizona ) is a 397 megawatt (MW) photovoltaic solar energy production ability is built by using very thin firm solar panels created first by Solar. 39 MW was available online up to December 2011. Moreover , the project is predictable to be accomplished by 2014

Golmud Solar park- Golmud Qinghai Province in China – Huanghe Hydropower’s is the largest in the country  with a capacity of 200 M W power. It is made up of photovoltaic power station and started Constructed in 2009 and it was made on October 29, 2011. Moreover 80 MW was make available by Yingli . This project is expected to generate the power up to 317.2 GWh/year .

In Ukraine the power plant established in 2009 . It has a feed-in tariff of approx. €0.46 per kilowatt hour upto 2030, which is one of the highest. It is called Perovo Solar Power Park station located at Perovo in Crimea, Ukraine is considered to be a biggest photovoltaic solar power generating deception in a universe in provisions of consecrated capability. It has upto 100 MWp photovoltaic power. It is estimated that   by July 2012 it would be the world’s fourth largest solar farm, made up of approximately 440,000 solar panels.

Similarly in Italy’s solar mega plant located in Montalto di Castro it   produces up 84.2 megawatts for electricity generation. In Canada near village Sarnia , Ontario a largest Photovoltaic Power Plant is set up commonly called as Sarnia Photovoltaic Plant in September 2010 . It was considered to be the world’s largest photovoltaic plant claim to be installed with capability of 97 MW generating power. It has since been surpassed by the Agua Caliente Solar Project with its 200 MW installed capacity. In 2009, Ontario introduce a Feed-in tariff renewable energy payments program paying up to CDN 44.3 cents per kW·h for large ground arrays such as the Sarnia plant. This makes Ontario’s one of the top feed in tariff programs in the world. First Solar developed, engineered, and constructed the facility, and it will operate the Sarnia Solar Project for Enbridge under a long-term contract. Enbridge will sell the power output of the facility to the Ontario Power Authority pursuant to 20-year power purchase agreements under the terms of the Ontario government’s Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program.

Refrences :-

CCGT Plants in S ^ “Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)”. Census Commission of India. Archived from  the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01

-“Solar Expected to Maintain its Status as the World’s Fastest-Growing Energy Technology”. Socialfunds.com . 2009-03-03. Retrieved 2011-11-21.

 

 

Solar Power Systems for Home

Sep 9, 2017   //   by admin   //   Knowledge Base  //  No Comments

This paper attempts to briefly discuss about the Solar power system in general context and later its application and efficiency in home environment. Hence let us first try to understand what exactly is solar energy.

Solar Energy: The sun is a big ball of gas made of up hydrogen and helium gas. It prepares energy in its inner core which is called as nuclear fusion. Everyday, sun radiates or sends out this enormous amount of energy which is called as solar energy.
Energy emitted by the sun is enormous but only a small part of the radiant energy ever reaches the earth. But the energy received by the sun is more than enough to supply for our needs. The sun radiates more energy in a second than the world has ever used since the time began. This energy received by earth is also dependent on the time of day, seasons and distance of region/location to equator or centre of earth receiving highest amount of energy.
Solar energy is renewable source of energy which is highly utilized naturally and through various other means by man for generation of power. The solar energy is not very easy to be used directly. It needs specific understanding of how to convert the solar energy into sustainable power that could serve multi purpose.

There are two ways where solar energy be converted and used. Following are
1.Passive Solar Energy: As the name suggests, Passive solar energy refers to harnessing the sun’s energy without any use of mechanical devices. This can be used to heat, cool or light one’s home without having to use the electricity. The collection, storage distribution and usage of solar power without mechanical devices requires some design in passive solar house.
The several applications a homemaker can use to take advantage of passive solar energy are as follows:
Passive solar heating: as the name suggests, gathers solar heat directly through sun. Large windows, utilizing the thermal mass to absorb solar energy entering windows and ensuring insulation to prevent loss, is the mechanism adopted to utilize energy.
passive cooling: using structural features and landscapes to create shading and minimize barriers to air paths and increasing ventilation allows balance of temperature to sustain.
Daylighting: this means to utilize the light of the day to brighten homes, also reducing electricity bills.
Second method to convert energy is Active Solar Energy which uses the mechanical devices in the collection, storage and distribution of energy. This “actively” gathers

energy from the sun. In order for the solar energy to be converted for any specific purpose, there is a need of solar collector. Solar collector is one way to capture sunlight and change it into usable energy.
The following are the applications utilized to harness energy:
Solar Space Heating: this uses pumps, fans and blowers as devices. These hold heated air for storage and uses ducts and blowers for distribution.
Solar Water Heating: uses pumps to circulate the water or heat transfer fluid through system.

Another Aspect to look at Solar Power System is the type of energy either passive or active solar harnesses it into. The energy converted can be categorised into three groups. a. Solar Thermal Energy: When the solar energy is converted to harness “heat”, it is referred to as “thermal energy”. One of the classic example is green house which is popular world wide.
Similarly solar thermal energy can also be used for pupose of Cooling: solar thermal energy is also used to drive the cooling process through solar absorption cooling and solar desiccant cooling. In solar absorption cooling, there is a absorbent and refrigerant. Solar energy is seperated here and refrigerant compresses and evaporates the heat to create a cooling effect. The evaporated refrigerant is then again recombined with absorbent to repeat the process. Desiccant cooling only removes the moisture from air, reducing the humidity and therefore the heat.
b. Photovoltaic solar power: The word “photo” means “light” and voltaic comes from the word “volt” or measurement of electricity. Hence solar energy that can be utilized to produce electricity. This requires solar cells for the process of conversion. The solar cells made of silicon are the semi-conductors which when exposed to light or heat, are capable of conducting electricity. For the electricty to flow, there is need of two more pieces ie. Circuit and one positively & negatively charged semi-conductor. The circuit provides a continous loop for flow while the +vely or -vely charged conductors dopes the flow and provide it charge (+ve or -ve).
For the photovoltaic cooling: this also uses the PV channels to solar energy to power an electricty cooling device.
c. Concentrating Solar Power: this is a type of solar thermal energy used to generation of solar power electricity. This aims at large scale production of energy. Since this is not possible at one individual residential level, it needs a community to pool in resources for the larger good of the people. This will be hence not much be discussed as the paper strictly limits itself to solar power system in homes.

Solar based Power System Components

Sep 9, 2017   //   by admin   //   Knowledge Base  //  No Comments

A solar power system is a photo voltaic system which converts solar energy into electricity. It is inter connected system with each having specific function. Solar energy basically refers to the application of energy from sun at practical ends. The main advantage of a solar power system is its modularity. Nowadays, solar energy is one of the most fast growing technologies among all renewable resources. It is having much application at residential level both off grid and grid- tie areas.

Given below are the components of solar power system:-

  • Solar panels
  • Solar inverters
  • Batteries
  • Utility meter
  • Charge controllers
  • Monitoring device

Solar panels –

It is a combination of solar cells mostly silicon cells. It converts energy from the sunlight into DC current which then transmits into inverters for electricity generation. These can installed on roof, ground or poles based on the necessity with the help of racks or frames.

Solar Inverters –

These converts DC current from Solar panels in to AC current which can be fed in to grid. It is required to supply power to all DC appliances. There are two types of solar inverters: – Stand Alone inverters and Grid tie inverters. Stand-alone inverters are connected to batteries and have power back up system. They can supply power even when the utility fails. While Grid – tie inverters are those which don’t have any power back up facilities and are generally used in places with constant power supply.

Batteries –

Batteries are connected to solar inverters and are used to store power for power back – up. This enables the system to provide power even in nights and bad weather when sunlight is not available.

Utility meter –

The utility meters are used to monitor the electricity usage and are part of power system. When the solar power system is connected to the grid it can be used for dual purposes as it will also track the amount of electricity generated in excess of the original usage. And the amount of energy that reamin unused you don’t use is credited as it passes through the utility meter and into the utility grid.

Charge controllers –

Charge controllers are used to supply DC power to all the appliances. The main function of a charge controller is to maintain batteries at proper charge level .It supplies a regulated DC to all appliances, store power in battery as well as monitoring devices. These are used for Maximum power point tracking (MPPT purposes). MPPT is a technique by which solar inverters tries to get maximum possible output.

Monitoring device-

Monitoring devices are used to monitor the power generation form a solar power system and ensure the power system is performing optimally.

All the above mentioned component are connected together to form a solar power system. These systems can be classified into two types on the basis of their power supply and grid connection:-

1) Stand Alone Systems:- These power system provide power backup facilities even when there is no sunlight for e.g. in nights or during bad weather when sunlight are not available. They need not always required to be connected to the grid. These have much application in rural areas and remote locations where there is no power supply.

These are two types: Direct Coupled systems & Stand- alone systems with batteries. The former don’t use any battery in the system. These types of systems are directly connected to DC appliances. Since they don’t have battery they don’t provide power backup in nights. The later one has power back up system

These have many load related problems like they become unresponsive when there is low quality wiring ,standby mode of loads, harmonic distortion, difference between load and inverter size.

 

2) Grid connected systems: –

These are systems which provide energy by solar panels which are connected to utility grid. They don’t have batteries unlike the stand alone systems. It consists of PV panels, MPPT, inverters, grid connection equipment. It is comparatively easier to install as they do not require batteries. When utility fails they will continue to supply power until there is sunlight. In that case the system behaves island which is surrounded with no power supply. It can be dangerous sometimes so the anti- islanding protection is necessary in these types of system. In some of inverters there is inbuilt anti-islanding circuit.

 

Solar based Power backup system for industries

Sep 9, 2017   //   by admin   //   Knowledge Base  //  No Comments

Solar energy is used for various purposes , these days it is widely utilized technically in creation of systems which would be helpful for power backup. Solar technologies are mostly described as either passive or active solar based, on the way they capture, transfer and give out energy. Active solar techniques are , such as use of photovoltaic panels & solar thermal collectors which can hold power together. Passive solar techniques get used to configure to the Sun, selecting equipment with good quality thermal mass or light scattering properties and designing spaces that can circulate air naturally.

Principle of conversion of DC power in to AC

Use of solar power for systems which are innovated & employ by producing electricity power called as DC power . There is a fixed charge controller in batteries by which it is stored. DC power is converted  to AC power with the help of an  inverter. For a specific period this power is distributed among the load.

 

 

Solar energy systems are function with capability of storing battery for a long period is utilized for varied applications such as in residences , industries throughout the world. As it provide numerous range of appliances like for lighting purposes , computer systems, building and communication equipments , home appliances etc. It is of great use for the purposeful appliances where a backup is required urgently.

As mentioned above the best systems can be produced which can convert DC power in to AC. And can be operated for everyday use appliances as PV- generated electricity. An inverter can act as a best power backup system bases on this principle. The battery is charged with the help of PV modules & supplies power to the load during day time. A charge controller is paced to avoid overcharging . This charged battery can be utilized anytime for power even during clowdy days and night.

Another Important application is LED , also called as Light Emitting Diode. It is very usefull semiconductor device . It used  for various purposes like aviation lighting, automotive lighting, traffic signals, general lighting . LED are also used for video displays & also useful in advanced communications technology these days. Infrared LEDs are used in remote control units as well. For commercial  purposes also like DVD players, T,V & other domestic devices.

There are various machines & systems innovated with the use of solar power in industries which are based on common principle of generating solar power into electricity and used worldwide such as :

Solar Furnance :- A solar furnace is most commonly used structure for Industries these days with the use of concentrated solar power in order to produce high temperatures with the help of Parabolic mirrors or heliostats care used to a concentrate light onto a focal point.. The world’s largest solar furnace is situated at Odeillo in the Pyrénées-Orientales in France. It is utilize an collection of plane mirrors in order to gather sunlight & shimmering it onto a large curved mirror. The law of reflection. For manufacturing purposes solar furnaces’ can be used in space also.

Dye-sensitized solar cell A dry sensitized solar cell has unique features it is semi flexible, semi transparent which is an added value to it as it can be well used for glass based systems. It is comparatively economical as made up of low coast materials. A good replacement than other machines as it because of light weight glass collector .

Concentrated solar power – Mirrors or lenses are used to concentrate a large area of sunlight in to a smaller area . When solar light fall in to the lens/mirrors the concentrated light energy is converted in to heat energy . This energy is utilized to drive a steam turbine / heat engine . This engine now is connected to an electrical power generator. This is the basic principle which is used by concentrated solar power in order to generate electricity.   It is also called as solar thermo electricity produced by steam .   With this principle, solar concentrators can be utilized for heating and cooling purposes in industries for example sola r air conditioning.

Parabolic trough: A parabolic trough comprises of a linear parabolic reflector, it deliberate light in to a focal line of the reflector on receiving end. A parabolic mirror is fixed , above it is the a tube filled with working fluid. During daylight the reflector captures light & let the fluid to be heated up to 350 °C   . This heat source is further utilized for power generation. The best suited example for commercial parabolic trough plants used is the Solar generating system plants is in California. Fresnel reflector: In this type of solar s ystems many thin mirror strips passes sunlight in to the tubes from side to side working fluid is drive in to  . These   flat mirrors let supplementary reflective surface with same quantity of space as a parabolic reflector. This way it captures enormous sunlight & further utilized for power generation. It is quite cheaper than the parabolic reflectors.

Refrences :- Links

www.ptlsolar.com/

www.grenlite.com/

 

 

Sea Level Increase Maintained By Using Less Fossil Fuel Power Systems

Sep 9, 2017   //   by admin   //   Knowledge Base  //  No Comments

This article brings forth the understanding of fossil fuel power system to the readers and its correlation to sea level.

Fossil Fuel: These fossil fuels are formed through natural process called as anaerobic decomposition of all the dead and buried organisms. This takes many years to be formed and consists of high amounts of carbon. These fossil fuels are of extreme high utility since these forms to be coal, petroleum and natural gas contributing to the energy generation and supply of power all over the world.

Since, these fossil fuels takes years in its formation, it can not be replenished and hence are categorized as Non-renewable sources of energy.

The utilization of fossil fuel has widely spread all over and is the cause of pollution to air, water, wind which further heads towards many issues in terms of environment, health, economy etc. Hence our production and use of energy for cooking, transportation, cooling and warming activities is directly contributing to the climate change. Let us look at it briefly and later systematically understand its relation with sea level.

Relationship Between Sea Level and Fossil Fuels:

Combustion of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide in air. Over the years, there has been sharp increase of Carbon Dioxide in air. Alongwith other green house gases released in air that directly increases the heat in atmosphere of Earth. Global temperature has increased drastically over the years which has resulted in increase rainfall and violent storms while reducing the snow/ice sheets, thereby increasing the sea levels.

Therefore, in simple explanation, fossil fuel power system poses following interrelated environmental problems associated with it

  1. Global warming
  2. Acidification of Environment.

Uptil now, there has been considerations given to global warming and its impacts in

several ways. One of the way that has been long neglected has been the rise in sea level. Since, it is believed to be one of most slow and gradual process and would not affect human race in many ways. Its only recent that researches has been invested into studying the phenomenon and effects.

Climate and Sea Level

The climate affects the sea level in 2 ways:

  1. Moving earth’s water between glaciers resting on land.
  2. By changing the Temperature of ocean water and hence its volume.

The warm climate raises the sea level even without contribution from glaciers. However, warming of entire ocean may take several decades. However, the upper level of sea may warm and raise sea level. This has largely been ignored aspect since its a short term affect of global warming. Major aspects of global sea level depends on:

a. Total quantity of water filing the ocean’s basins
b. Temperature of the ocean layer: determining volume and density of water. c. shape of the ocean floor or Bythametry: determining water holding capacity.

Therefore, global raise in temperature can be due to variety of physical mechanisms such as transferring the snow and ice from land into sea, thereby increasing quantity of water in ocean basins and raise ocean’s temperature causing the expansion in volumes and changes in bythametry of ocean floor.

Acidification and Sea Level

Fossil fuel releases sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides into the air which are the main causes of acid rain. Acid rain causes acidification of lakes, streams. This water damages the trees and forest soil. With strength of acid rain, infrastructure like buildings, paints begin to decay. The decay of the forest land gradually lays the basis for the erosion to take place and the water bodies to substitute for the land. The foundation is laid since there is land availability and raise in sea level that will begin to occupy the space that it needs.

Effects of Increase in Sea Level:

These global temperature has grown over the decades and even with cutting down on the use of fossil fuels, it will take its long due course to reach back to equilibrium. Though it will leave a heavy economical, environmental, social and cultural impact on human race, few of the effects it will show on humans over years are and would be:

1. Occupying Land: thousands of square miles of land would be lost since the sea level would require to grow over its capacity and occupy nearby land. Economically, this is something which could be used for several purposes to support and development of man.

2. Erosion: Though mainly affecting the coastal communities, erosion would happen, taking away several fertile zones under it.
3. Loss of Storm Damage Control: Since the water would reach the communities close by circle, the scope to control or prevent storms in such location would be negligible.

4. Safe Drinking water: Not only will it effect the marine life, it will also affect the quantity of drinking water since sea rise will increase salinity of marshes and aquifers.

Saving On Electricity Bill Through Alternative Energy Systems

Sep 9, 2017   //   by admin   //   Knowledge Base  //  No Comments

This paper details the reader about the different types of alternative energy system and how this is essential in many ways to the human race to keep the economic consideration to prime importance.
Before we proceed with the need of alternative energy system, it is required to understand as to why is it essential and causes for alternative energy system to be the need of the hour.

Electricity has largely been produced through heat engines, fossil fuels, coal combustion and largely from nuclear fusion. The result of mass production from these sources was rather drastic.

The major proportion of electricity earlier was dependent upon the engines using the fossil fuels, diesel, burning biogas or other natural gas- propane, uranium. These sources of energy are non-renewable and releases harmful gaseous elements making it harmful environmentally. But other than the environmental impacts, it has been observed over the years to have a chain reaction on the economy as well, thereby increasing budget burden on individual pockets as well.
Therefore, need was felt on to shifting to alternative power sources.

Alternative Power System: The underlining benefit of alternative energy is the fact that it is renewable sources. There are broad range of sources from nuclear energy, hydroelectric energy, geothermal energy, wind,and solar energy. There are few other options falling in alternative energy sources such hydrogen-power, fuel cell technology that are slowly picking pace.

Through many different research studies it has been understood where the expenditure is consistent and maximum. Energy utilised is largely on heating, cooling,cleaning, cooking. This includes water heating, washing machines, tumble dryers, dish-washing, lighting and refrigerators.

Let us discuss few of the above alternative power systems in brief and acquaint the readers about different options available to their needs. While later we discuss few changes needed to be adapted by one to improve upon individual cost saving.

Solar: the energy from the Sun can be used for the purpose of heating, cooling through use of different devices such as solar water heaters, photovoltaic solar panels, solar water pools etc. These are especially to absorb the rays of the sun and convert it to electricity or heat energy. This is highly utilized source in area/duration of abundant sun rays.

Wind: this is another source of energy generated that can be utilized extremely well where there is flow of wind, free from all obstruction. It has been used before as well for different purpose but its importance is felt in generation of electricity. The main tool to harness this energy is through the “wind mill”. With the pressure of the wind hitting against the mill’s blades, it helps to convert that into energy that can be used, stored and distributed.

Water: this is also referred as hydro-power. The electricity generated through the kinetic power of water. Example, its connection with solar energy could be one way to use it, however running water itself can produce electricity. The flow of the water from higher region or water from a depth can be source of energy used through turbines converts, stores and distributes power over long distances.

Though the above two mechanisms are used where there is abundance of supply and hence solar energy can be largely be utilized world wide. However, alternative power saving systems not only comes from diverting into another system but equal importance has been found in adaptation to making small changes at domestic level. Following are few important changes:

Consumption Pattern:

1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

CFLs: these are good substitutes for bulbs, replacing the inefficient incandescent light bulbs with energy saving CFLs ie Compact Fluorescent Bulbs is ultimate cost saving tool.
Electrical items such as TV, Audio systems should be switched off when not in use. Idle operations leads to loss of more energy. Put the devices on sleep mode, saving a lot of electricity and hence cost cutting as well.

Refrigerator: frost built can increase the amount of energy needed to keep the motor running and hence regular de-frost is needed. The food should be wrapped or cover should be lid thereby avoiding moisture released which harmfully affects the compressor.

Fans: for ceiling fans, it is suggested to replace the conventional regulators with electronic regulators. Use of exhaust fans is an option which reduces budget. Use passive and active ways of conserving energy like using sunlight during day, use of light coloured shades for heat to be absorbed and ventilation so as to provide coolness as well.

Making small active and passive changes in one’s household could help not only one save electricity bill but also bring economy changes at macro level.

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